Senin, Januari 18, 2021

Our World After The Pandemic: The Threat of Violent Ekstremism and Terrorism, The Political Context

Muhammad, Nabi Abad 21?

Maulid Nabi diperingati tiap tahun, tapi Muhammad tidak pernah disajikan sebagai Nabi abad ke-21. Selama ini peringatan maulid bersifat seremonial belaka dan kisah-kisah kenabian...

HMI dan Kongres 3 Miliar

Puthut EA, penulis dan pemilik Mojok.co, hari ini menohok Himpunan Mahasiswa Islam (HMI) dengan tulisannya yang satir. Ini cuma satu dari sekian banyak cibiran...

58 Tahun Denny JA

Sahabat baik saya Denny JA, sejak 38 tahun lalu, berusia 58 tahun. Satu usia yang boleh dibilang tak lagi muda. Tentu saja saya kaget...

Messi Adalah Nabi dan Maradona Adalah Tuhan

Paus Francis tersenyum. Ia juga berasal dari Argentina. Saat itu Ia mengunjungi klub sepokbola di Buienes Aires, Argentina: the Sportivo Pereyra de Barracas FC. Di...
Azyumardi Azra, CBE
Azyumardi Azra, CBE
Guru Besar Sejarah Fakultas Adab dan Humaniora Universitas Islam Negeri (UIN) Syarif Hidayatullah. Rektor IAIN/UIN Syarif Hidayatullah selama dua periode (IAIN,1998-2002, dan UIN, 2002-2006. Guru Besar kehormatan Universitas Melbourne (2006-2009). Dewan Penyantun, penasehat dan guru besar tamu di beberapa universitas di mancanegara; dan juga lembaga riset dan advokasi demokrasi internasional. Gelar CBE (Commander of the Most Excellent Order of British Empire) dari Ratu Elizabeth, Kerajaan Inggris (2010) dll.

Pandemic C-19: Disruptions

  • Personal and public health with rapid spread of the pandemic globally, more than 90 millions infected and almost two million death as of 11 January 2021;
  • Economic and financial crises because of lockdown and gigantic amount of budget spent for C-19 mitigatio;.
  • Political disorders at international, national and local levels because of different or conflicting policies of representative government in response to C-19;
  • Continuing threat of violent extremism, radicalism and terrorism albeit some apparent decline—there are some 228 suspected terrorist were arrested by Indonesian police in 2020.

Political and Security Contexts

  • With all disruptions, the efforts to address violent extremism and terrorism could be affected;
  • There should be consolidation (reconsolidation) of politics—restoring democracy amidst increased tendency of authoritarianism using the pandemic;
  • Security should not be meant only as police and military force, but must also involve society;
  • There should be restrengthening of social cohesion that declines during pandemic;
  • Political communication between government and civil society should also be strengthened.

Post-Pandemic: Strategies to Address Violent Extremism

  • Comprehensive, far-reaching; advocating attitude against violent extremism and/or terrorism at various levels of society;
  • Multi- and inter-institutional both at domestic and global levels;
    Prevention at the root-causes of extremism, violence, radicalism and terrorism;
  • Comprehensive de-radicalization and counter-radicalization programs involving government ministries/agencies, religious organizations/civil society, educational institutions and society at large.

Strengthening Law against Violent Extremism

  • The Anti-Terrorism Law in any country against violent extremism and/or terror, should include;
  • Prevention from the very beginning of signs/indications of violent extremism;
  • Imprisonment of perpetrators of violence acts and suspected terrorists who joined extreme and/or terrorist groups such as ISIS;
  • Revocation of passports of those participated in terrorist acts both domestically and abroad;
  • But anti-Terrorism Law should not condone arbitrary acts on the part of law enforcement agencies;
  • Comprehensive and consistent de-radicalization and counter-radicalization programs.

Enforcing Law and Order

  • Law enforcement agencies (Apgakum/Aparat Penegak Hukum) in Indonesia, such as the Densus 88 should be firmer against violent, radical and terrorist groups; there should be no any kind of ‘pembiaran’ (just ignoring) as if condoning violence;
  • The Densus 88 and other law enforcement agencies else where should keep the enforcement of law and order in just, fair and humane manner;
  • The court should also be firmer in bringing justice;
  • There should be much wider and stronger cooperation of law enforcement agencies regionally and globally.

Improving Economic Justice

  • The youth, poor and unemployed are among the most prone to radicalism and terrorism;
  • There should be more economic improvement and creation of employment;
  • Economic growth should go hand in hand with economic justice and improvement of the welfare of the poor;
  • There should be more balanced economic growth and stronger economic cooperation at regional and global levels to alleviate poverty and unployment;
  • Better economy of these groups of people make it more plausible to integrate them to a wider society.

Improving Welfare Approach

  • States and Muslim societies should play a better roles in improving the welfare of the terrorist inmates;
  • Related ministries such as Labor, and Social Welfare should train them with certain vocation;
  • They should be provided ‘seed money’ for their micro business endeavors after their return to society;
  • Related ministries such as education, religious affairs, social welfare, labor/work-force should provide their children with scholarship to ensure their education;
  • There should be stronger co-operation internationally in improving their welfare.

Continuing Empowerment of the Moderates

  • Indonesia is blessed with the existence of moderate Islamic (Wasatiyah Islam) organizations such as NU, Muhammadiyah, and many others;
  • They play an important role in Islamic education, dakwah, social and health services, philanthropy, economic enterprises and many others;
  • They also represent Islamic-based civil society: independent vis-à-vis state, non-political, self-organizing, self-financing, playing bridging and mediating roles between state and society—working for better ordering of society;
  • There should be better working networks of the moderates and their organizations in Southeast Asia and beyond.

Strengthening Indonesian Islam

  • Indonesian Islam is a distinctive paradigm of Southeast Asian Islam;
  • Believing and practicing similar ‘Articles of Faith’ and ‘Articles of Islam’, Southeast Asian Muslims have distinctive socio-cultural expression;
  • Indonesian Islam has three aspects of Islamic orthodoxy: Ash’ariyah theology, Shafi’iyah fiqh; and Ghazalian Sufism.
  • There should continuing strengthening and socialization of Indonesian Islam in the region;
  • Indonesian Islam should be more assertive to play greater roles in the mediation and creation of peace at regional and international levels.

Protecting Education

  • Educational institutions have been targeted by radical and terrorist groups as the main ground of recruitment;
  • Responsible Ministries should take preventive policies and action to prevent infiltration of radical ideas brought by certain people (invited sermon giver or teacher);
  • Headmaster and teachers should be made aware of the infiltration and spread of radical ideas through teaching and extra-curriculum activities;
  • Teachers should be trained in the national ideology and security of the nation-state in relations with the creation of regional and global peace.

Radical Ideas in Education Institutions

  • There are evidence extreme/radical ideas attract many more students at general schools/universities than at Islamic education institutions;
  • Students at Natural/Exact sciences tend to have ‘black and white’ perspective of Islam;
  • They are more prone to radical ideas transmitted by certain teachers/lecturers and/or preachers in religious study groups;
  • There should be also close supervision and control of students’ religious study groups;
  • There should be reorientation of the mandatory ‘Religious Instruction’ to counter radical ideas.

Presented at International Seminar ‘Counter-Terrorism and Covid-19: Understanding the Societal and Economic Challenges for Keeping People Safe post-Lockdown’ Research Centre Trust, Peace and Social Relations Coventry University, UK, 13 January 202

 

 

Azyumardi Azra, CBE
Azyumardi Azra, CBE
Guru Besar Sejarah Fakultas Adab dan Humaniora Universitas Islam Negeri (UIN) Syarif Hidayatullah. Rektor IAIN/UIN Syarif Hidayatullah selama dua periode (IAIN,1998-2002, dan UIN, 2002-2006. Guru Besar kehormatan Universitas Melbourne (2006-2009). Dewan Penyantun, penasehat dan guru besar tamu di beberapa universitas di mancanegara; dan juga lembaga riset dan advokasi demokrasi internasional. Gelar CBE (Commander of the Most Excellent Order of British Empire) dari Ratu Elizabeth, Kerajaan Inggris (2010) dll.
Facebook Comment

POLIKLITIK

ARTIKEL TERBARU

China-Indonesia, Lahir dari Rahim Bulutangkis

Olahraga bukan sekedar cara untuk menjaga kesehatan, juga bukan sebagai hobi yang dinikmati dan sebuah kewajiban rutinitas untuk mencegah berbagai penyakit. Lebih dari itu,...

Penguatan Kebijakan Pelaksanaan Akreditasi RS di Masa Covid-19

Kasus Pandemik Corona Virus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) kian meningkat dan telah memengaruhi berbagai aspek kesehatan termasuk memengaruhi upaya dalam meningkatkan kualitas layanan fasilitas kesehatan....

Memaknai Syair Lagu Jika Surga dan Neraka Tak Pernah Ada

Lagu yang diciptakan oleh musisi terkenal di Indonesia yaitu Ahmad Dhani, melahirkan Sebuah mahakarya lagu yang begitu indah dan memiliki makna yang dalam. Lagu...

Soe Hok Gie, Perihal PKI dan Humanity

Soe Hok Gie sendiri adalah salah satu tokoh kunci dalam gerakan anak muda yang kemudian berujung dengan kejatuhan Orde Lama. Ia memainkan peran yang...

Ihwal Teori Keadilan John Rawls

Keadilan merupakan salah satu diskursus dalam filsafat yang paling banyak dibahas, bahkan menjadi topik utama dalam dunia global saat ini. Para filsuf sejak zaman...

ARTIKEL TERPOPULER

Apa Beda Habib, Sayyid, Dzuriyah, Alawiyin, dan Ahlulbait

Terjadi pencampuradukan makna dan fungsi sejumlah kata "Ahlulbait", "Dzuriyah", "Habib", "Sayyid", dan "Alawi", secara sengaja ataupun tidak sengaja, yang bisa menimbulkan kesalahpahaman. Hadis Tsaqalain (bahasa...

Mengapa Banyak Abdi Negara Muda Pamer di Media Sosial?

Apakah kamu pengguna Twitter yang aktif? Jika iya, pasti kamu pernah melihat akun @txtdrberseragam berseliweran di timeline kamu. Sebagaimana tercantum di bio akun ini,...

Narkoba Menghantui Generasi Muda

Narkoba telah merajalela di Indonesia .Hampir semua kalangan masyarakat positif menggunakan Narkoba. Bahkan lebih parahnya lagi adalah narkoba juga telah merasuki para penegak hukum...

Ihwal Teori Keadilan John Rawls

Keadilan merupakan salah satu diskursus dalam filsafat yang paling banyak dibahas, bahkan menjadi topik utama dalam dunia global saat ini. Para filsuf sejak zaman...

Soe Hok Gie, Perihal PKI dan Humanity

Soe Hok Gie sendiri adalah salah satu tokoh kunci dalam gerakan anak muda yang kemudian berujung dengan kejatuhan Orde Lama. Ia memainkan peran yang...

Log In

Forgot password?

Don't have an account? Register

Forgot password?

Enter your account data and we will send you a link to reset your password.

Your password reset link appears to be invalid or expired.

Log in

Privacy Policy

Add to Collection

No Collections

Here you'll find all collections you've created before.